Справочник школьника ббк 81. 2Англ К26 Карпусь Е. В. К26 - umotnas.ru o_O
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Справочник школьника ббк 81. 2Англ К26 Карпусь Е. В. К26 - страница №1/2

Е. В. Карпусь
УСТНЫЕ ТЕМЫ

по АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
Справочник школьника






ББК 81.2Англ

К26

Карпусь Е. В.

К26


Устные темы по английскому языку: Справочник школь­ника.—СПб.: Издательский Дом «Литера», 2006.— 96 с.
ISBN 5-94455-448-7

© Карпусь Е. В., 2005

ISBN 5-94455-448-7

© Издательский Дом «Литера», 2006



ДОРОГИЕ ДРУЗЬЯ!

Вы держите в руках книгу, которая помо­жет вам в выполнении письменных и устных домашних заданий по английскому языку, а также в подготовке к экзаменам.

В ней собраны устные темы, предусмот­ренные школьной программой для изучения английского языка учащимися 5—8-х классов.

Каждая тема представлена текстом, после которого приводится подробная выборка анг­лийских слов и выражений. К большинству этих слов и выражений даны транскрипция и русский перевод. В тех случаях, когда транс­крипция слова не приведена, её можно най­ти в англо-русском словаре.



About myself (О себе)

Let me introduce myself. My name is Olga. My surname is Belova. I was born in Saint Petersburg on the 22nd of December, 1993. So, I am the Rooster according to the Chinese horoscope. I am a pupil of the 7th form.

As for my appearance, I am rather tall and slim. My hair is long, curly and light-brown^ My eyes are blue with long eyelashes. I think I am a good-looking girl.

I live in a 16-storeyed block of flats on the 5th floor. I live with my mum, dad and my elder brother Oleg. We also have a pet. His name is Barsik. He is a fat and lazy cat. Our flat is big. We have three rooms, a kitch­en, a hall, a toilet, a bathroom and a balcony.

My mum is 42 years old. She is an economist. Her name is Irina Nikolaevna. My dad is a busi­nessman. He is 43 years old. His name is Boris Ivanovich. My elder brother Oleg is 20 years old. He is a student.

Of course, I go to school! My school is not far from my house. It takes me 20—25 minutes to get there by bus or trolleybus. When the weather is good, I like to go to my school on foot. We learn many subjects at school, but my favourites are History, Literature and English.

I have a lot of friends. My best friend is Natasha. She is also 12 years old and she goes to the same school with me. We are friends since we were 3 years old. She is tall and graceful. Her eyes are brown and her hair is black and straight.

My hobby is playing the piano. I also like to read interesting books, especially historical novels and science fiction. Two times a week Natasha and I go to play lawn tennis. We like this kind of sport very much.

I really don't like noisy arguments and quar­rels. I try to avoid them.
Words and phrases

Let me introduce myself [] — разрешите представиться

surname [] — фамилия

22nd = twenty second [] — двадцать вто­рое (порядковое числительное)

Chinese horoscope — Китайский гороскоп

the Rooster [] — Петух (знак года рождения по Китайскому гороскопу)

7th = seventh — седьмой (порядковое числительное)

form [] — класс (школьный)

appearance [] — внешность

rather tall and slim — довольно высокий и стройный

hair is long, curly and light-brown — волосы длинные, кудрявые и русые

long eyelashes — длинные ресницы

good-looking girl — симпатичная девушка (девочка)

16-storeyed block of flats — 16-этажный многоквартир­ный дом

elder brother — старший брат

fat and lazy cat — толстый и ленивый кот

kitchen [] — кухня

bathroom [] — ванная комната

toilet [] — туалет

hall [] — коридор

balcony [] — балкон

economist [] — экономист

businessman [] — бизнесмен

student [] — студент

of course [] — конечно

not far from — не далеко

It takes me 20—25 minutes to get there by bus or trolleybus — я трачу 20—25 минут, чтобы доехать туда на автобусе или троллейбусе

to go to school on foot — ходить в школу пешком

learn many subjects — изучаем много предметов

favourite [] — любимый

goes to the same school with me — ходит в одну школу

со мной tall and graceful — высокий и грациозный

hair is black and straight — волосы тёмные и прямые

playing the piano — игра на пианино

also — также

historical novel — исторический роман

science fiction [] — научная фантастика

two times a week — два раза в неделю

to play lawn tennis — играть в теннис

noisy arguments and quarrels — шумные споры и ссоры

try to avoid them — стараюсь избегать их

My Family (Моя семья)

My name is Olga. My surname is Belova. I am twelve. I go to school. I am a pupil of the 7th form of a secondary school. I live in Saint Petersburg in a block of flats with my family.

Now I would like to tell you about my family. My family consists of my mother, my father, my granny. We also have one more member of our family — our pet. It is a cat. His name is Barsik.

My mother's name is Natalia Ivanovna. She is 40. She is a tall and slim woman. Her hair is fair, shoulder-length and straight. Her eyes are blue with long eyelashes. She is an economist. She works a lot, but she also finds time to go to the concerts. She helps me with all my problems. She is my real friend.

My father's name is Maxim Victorovich. He is 45. He is a tall and handsome man. His hair is black and close-cropped. His eyes are blue. He is a busi­nessman. My dad works 12 hours a day but he spends the weekends only with us. We go to the theatres and museums together. When the weather is nice, we go to the country-side to enjoy fresh air and beautiful nature. My dad likes fishing; he also likes to gather mushrooms and berries in autumn forests.

My brother's name is Roman. He is 20. He is a student. He doesn't spend much time with me, because he studies and works at the same time. He likes to go in for sports. He is fond of lawn ten­nis, basketball and swimming. He takes after our dad in everything.

My grandmother’s name is Vera Petrovna. She is a pensioner. She is 70. She runs our house. She keeps it clean and tidy. She cooks dinners and sup­pers for us. She bakes tasty cakes, pies, pancakes. She knits warm wool socks and sweaters for our big family. My granny is not very old, good-look­ing woman. She is not tall. Her hair is wavy and short. Her eyes are blue.

Our cat Barsik is our fluffy friend. We love him very much. We all take care about him. We comb his fur every day, feed him, play with him.

In summer our grandmother goes to our country-house. She has a kitchen-garden there. She plants different vegetables there: carrots, potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes.

Our family is fond of sports. We have a «mini-gym» in our flat. There are an exercise bike, a spe­cial bench, a bar-bell and dumb-bells.

In the evening we all like to sit around the table in our cosy kitchen to discuss the events of the day.
Words and phrases

surname [] — фамилия


block of flats — многоквартирный дом
I would like to tell you about... — мне бы хотелось рас­сказать вам о...
to consist of... — состоять из...
member [] — член
pet [] — любимое домашнее животное
tall [] — высокий
slim [] — стройный
fair [] — светлый

shoulder-length [] — длина до плеч

straight [] — прямой

eyelash [] — ресница

to find time — находить время

to help [] — помогать

real [] — истинный

handsome [] — красивый (о мужской красоте)

close-cropped [] — коротко стриженные

businessman [] — деловой человек, бизнес­мен

to spend — проводить (время)

theatre [] — театр

museum [] — музей

together [] — вместе

weather [] — погода

country-side — деревня

to enjoy [] — наслаждаться

fishing [] — рыбалка

to gather [] — собирать

mushroom [] — гриб

berry [] — ягода

forest [] — лес

at the same time — одновременно

lawn [] tennis — теннис

to take after — походить на кого-либо

pensioner [] — пенсионер

to run our house — следить за порядком в доме

tidy [] — опрятный

to bake [] — печь (выпекать)

tasty [] — вкусный

cake [] — торт

pie [] — пирог

pancake [] — блин

to knit [] — вязать

warm [] — тёплый

sock — носок

sweater [] — свитер

wavy [] — волнистый

fluffy [] — пушистый

to take care [] about... — заботиться о...

to comb [] — расчёсывать

fur [] — шерсть

to feed [] — кормить

to play [] — играть

country-house — загородный дом

kitchen-garden [] — огород

to plant [] — сажать

vegetable [] — овощ

there [] — там

carrot [] — морковь

potato [] — картофель

cucumber [] — огурец

tomato [] — помидор

exercise bike — велотренажёр

bench [] — скамья

bar-bell [] — штанга

dumb-bell [] — гантель

cosy [] — уютный



My Flat (Моя квартира)

My name is Olga. My surname is Belova. I am twelve. I am a pupil of the 7th form of a second­ary school. I live in Saint Petersburg with my family in a 16-storeyed block of flats in Solnech-naya Street.

Let me tell you about our flat. It is big and cosy. There are four rooms in it, a kitchen, a bathroom, a toilet, a balcony. We all have our own rooms and our favourite living room for watching TV, meet­ing friends, celebrating birthdays and holidays.

My room is small but comfortable. I have a bed and wardrobe in it. I also have a desk to study at. There are many bookshelves in my room. There are different books in them: textbooks, science fiction, detective stories, journey stories, historical novels, novels about love. I love reading, and reading is my hobby. I don’t have a TV-set in my room: we have two TV-sets in our flat — in the living room and in the kitchen.

My parents’ room is rather big. We can call it a bedroom, because my mum and dad only sleep there or read books in silence. There are a large bed, a wardrobe and a big mirror in it.

My brother’s room is a «secret room» for our family. He doesn’t let us do anything in his room. He doesn’t even let our granny clean his room. There are all necessary things for him there: a com­puter, some musical equipment, an electrical gui­tar, a lot of CDs, wires and a great many other small and strange things.

My grandmother’s room is a «special world» in our flat. There are old-fashioned furniture, an­tique pictures, vases, photos in this room. It looks like a museum. Her room is always light, clean and warm.

In our living room there are a wall unit, a TV-set, a comfortable sofa with two armchairs, a round table with 6 wooden chairs. Women in our family like a flower, that’s why there are always flo­wers in a beautiful vase in the middle of the round wooden table.

There are beautiful curtains in all our rooms. All window-sills are full of flowers which our gran­ny plants and grows.

Of course, we have all modern conveniences in our flat: cold and hot running water, gas, elec­tricity, central heating and a vacuum cleaner.

In the kitchen we spend evenings, talking to each other, discussing problems, sharing ideas and plans for the future.

I like our flat. I always feel calm and relaxed in it.


Words and phrases

16-storeyed block of flats — 16-этажный дом

big — большой

cosy [] — уютный

kitchen [] — кухня

bathroom [] — ванная комната

toilet [] — туалет

balcony [] — балкон

own [] — собственный

favourite [] — любимый

living room — гостиная

to celebrate [] — праздновать, торжественно

отмечать birthday [] — день рождения

small — маленький

comfortable [] — удобный

wardrobe [] — платяной шкаф

desk — письменный стол

bookshelf [] — книжная полка

textbook — учебник

science fiction [] — научная фантастика

detective story [] — детективный рассказ

journey story [] — рассказ о путешествиях

novel — роман

hobby [] — излюбленное занятие, увлечение

parent [] — родитель

rather [] big — довольно большой

to call [] — звонить по телефону

silence [] — тишина

mirror [] — зеркало

doesn’t let — не позволяет

anything [] — что-либо

necessary [] — необходимый

equipment [] — оборудование

guitar [] — гитара

lot — множество

wire [] — провод

old-fashioned [] — старомодный

furniture [] — мебель

antique [] — антикварный

vase [] — ваза

museum [] — музей

always [] — всегда

light [] — светлый

clean [] — чистый, прибранный

warm [] — тёплый

wall unit — мебельная стенка

sofa [] — диван

armchair [] — кресло

wooden [] — деревянный

chair [] — стул

curtain [] — занавеска

window-sill — подоконник

to plant [] — сажать

to grow [] — выращивать

modern [] — современный

convenience [] — удобство

running water — водопровод

heating [] — отопление

vacuum cleaner [] — пылесос

to share []делиться

future [] — будущее

My Friend (Моя подруга)

My name is Olga. My surname is Belova. I am twelve. I am a pupil of the 7th form of a secondary school. I live in Saint Petersburg in a block of flats with my family. I have many friends but my best friend is Natasha.

Natasha is also twelve years old. She goes to the same school with me. We are friends since we were 3 years old. It is better to say that we are friends since a kindergarten (nursery-school). We like to visit each other. We spend much time together. We have com­mon interests.

Natasha is a tall girl. Her hair is long, dark and straight. She likes to wear it in a tail. Her eyes are brown with long eyelashes. Her eyebrows are also dark. Her figure is graceful and slim. The way she walks at­tracts attention of people. She looks really pretty.

We both like to play lawn tennis and basket­ball. We like to go to the theatre or to the con­certs of our favourite pop-stars or pop-groups.

My friend lives in a 5-storeyed block of flats on the third floor. She lives with her family: her mother, father, brother, grandmother and grand­father. Her mother is a teacher. Her father is an engineer. Natasha’s brother is a schoolboy. He is a pupil of the third form. Her grandmother and grandfather are pensioners.

Natasha has a pet. It’s a dog. His name is Jack. He is a hound. He is a very clever dog. They went to special courses of dog training and now Jack can protect his masters and his house from strangers.

I like to go to Natasha’s place. It’s always very warm and calm at her place. I am happy to have such a friend as Natasha!


Words and phrases

the same school — одна и та же школа

friends since we were 3 years old — дружим с 3-х лет

it is better to say — лучше сказать (точнее сказать)

kindergarten [] — детский сад

each other — друг друга

to spend much time together [] — проводить много времени вместе

common interests [] — общие интересы

straight [] — прямой

to wear it in a tail [] — завязывать волосы в хвост

eye [] — глаз
brown [] — карий

long eyelashes [] — длинные ресницы

eyebrow [] — бровь

figure [] — фигура

the way she walks — её походка

to attract — привлекать

attention [] — внимание

really [] — действительно

pretty [] — красивый, привлекательный

theatre [] — театр

hound [] — гончая

to protect — защищать

master — хозяин

stranger — незнакомец

I like to go to her place — мне нравится ходить к ней в гости

My Pet (Мой домашний любимец)

I have a pet. It’s a cat. Her name is Pussy. Our Pussy is rather old. She is about 10 years old. My parents took her from our friends’ house when I was a little girl. So, Pussy and I grew up toge­ther.

Now, let me describe my lovely pet. She is very fluffy. Her eyes are sometimes gray and sometimes yellow. The colour of her fur is black and white with a red funny spot on her tail.

My Pussy is a fat cat, because she is lazy and doesn’t like to play and jump a lot. In summer she moves into our country-house and spends there three months.

She catches mice and little birds. I think Pussy remembers that she is a hunter by nature. All the members of our family like to play with Pussy.

Our Pussy can cure us. She curls up on our knees and starts to purr. At that moment all prob­lems and diseases go away. Pussy is a real doctor.

My friends always bring Pussy different special pet-toys (for example, toy-mice, balls, ribbons, etc.) and play with her.

Pussy likes guests. She meets them in the corri­dor, purrs and waits for a present or some tasty food.

I like my pet. I even know a rhyme about Pussy: Pussy-Cat, Pussy-Cat, Can you catch the big fat rat? If you catch that bad fat rat, I'll give you some ham for that.
Words and phrases

cat — кошка

rather [] old — довольно старый

took her from our friends’ house — взяли её у наших друзей

grew [] up together — выросли вместе

to describe [] — описать, описывать

fluffy [] — пушистый

fur [] — шерсть

funny [] — забавный, смешной
spot — пятно

tail — хвост

mice [] — мыши (множ. число);

mouse [] — мышь (ед. число)

to cure [] — лечить

to curl up [] — сворачиваться клубком

knees [] — колени

to purr [] — мурлыкать

disease [] — болезнь

special [] — специальный, особенный

ribbon [] — ленточка

guests [] — гости

waits for [] — ждёт

rhyme [] — стихотворение

to catch [] — поймать, схватить

fat [] — жирный, толстый

rat [] — крыса

ham [] — ветчина



My School (Моя школа)

My name is Olga. My surname is Belova. I am 12. I am a pupil of the 7th form of a secondary school.

Now I would like to tell you about my school. My school number is 135. It is not very big but comfortable. Pupils from six to seventeen years old study in our school.

Lessons in our school start at 9.00 a.m. and last till about 3 p.m. The school has four floors, 46 classrooms, a large, light and beautiful hall, a canteen where we can have breakfasts and din­ners, a gym with modern sports equipment and a cloack-room.

Our classrooms are furnished very well. We have all necessary things there. Let's take any classroom. In front of the blackboard there are desks and chairs. In the back part of the classroom and on the left and right there are bookcases and bookshelves. There are curtains on the windows. The window-sills are full of flowers in flower pots. We water them regularly.

The hall is a place where we hold meetings and concerts. There is a large stage in it. Opposite the stage there are rows of armchairs. Behind the arm­chairs rows there is sound and musical equipment.

The gym is large, light and comfortable. It is very convenient to hold PE lessons here. We have a lot of mats in our gym. There are also exercise bikes, multigyms, benches and other sports equipment.

We can do lots of exercises there. But when it is winter, we go skiing to the park which is near our school.

So, we try to keep our beautiful school clean and tidy.
Words and phrases

pupil [] — ученик

lesson [] — урок

a. m. (ante meridiem, лат.) — до полудня

p. m. (post meridiem, лат.) — после полудня

floor [] — этаж

to last [] — продолжаться, длиться

hall — (концертный) зал

canteen [] — столовая

breakfast [] — завтрак


dinner [] — обед
gym [] — спортивный зал
modern [] — современный
equipment [] — оборудование
cloak-room [] — гардероб
are furnished [] — обставлены мебелью, мебли­рованы
necessary [] — необходимый
in front [] of — спереди, впереди
back [] — задний
left — левый
right [] — правый
blackboard [] — классная доска
desk — парта

chair [] — стул

bookcase [] — книжный шкаф

bookshelf [] — книжная полка

curtain [] — занавеска

window-sill [] — подоконник

full — полный

flower pot — цветочный горшок

regularly [] — регулярно

to water — поливать

to hold — проводить

meeting — собрание

opposite — напротив

stage [] — сцена

row [] — ряд

armchair [] — кресло

behind [] — позади

sound [] — звуковой

musical [] — музыкальный

convenient [] — удобный

РЕ lesson — урок физической культуры

mats — маты

exercise bike — велотренажёр

multigym — многофункциональный тренажёр

bench [] — скамья

to go skiing — кататься на лыжах

near [] — вблизи, возле, около

The English Language

(Английский язык)

English is the most widespread language on the Earth. All over the world many people use En­glish as an international language.

People use it for social purposes, business, and education. There are also certain «international» professions, such as airline pilots and air-traffic controllers, which require knowledge of English.

Approximately 400 million people speak English as a mother tongue. It has become the world lan­guage in politics, science, trade and cultural rela­tions. It is the language of computers technology. Half of the world’s scientific journals are in Eng­lish.

The English language is the language of great literature. William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Oscar Wilde and George Bernard Show wrote their books in English.

It is supposed that the English language is rather easy to learn because it doesn't have such a difficult grammar as modern Russian, German or Greek. But there are many exceptions to every rule in English. English has the largest vocabulary in the world: there are about 500 000 words and 300 000 technical terms in it.

There are two versions of the English language: British and American English. They have a few minor differences in grammar, spelling, vocabu­lary and pronunciation. But American and British speakers understand each other without much difficulty.

So it is very important to learn English. It is not easy but you should be ready to make efforts and be patient.


Words and phrases

widespread — (широко)распространённый

the Earth [] — Земля (планета)

all over the world — во всём мире

international — международный

to use [] — использовать, применять

social purpose [] — социальная цель

business [] — бизнес

education [] — обучение

certain [] — конкретный, определённый

airline pilot [] — лётчик, пилот

air-traffic controller — авиадиспетчер

to require [] — требовать

approximately [] — приблизительно

mother tongue [] — родной язык

science [] — наука

computer technology [] — компьютерная технология

scientific journal [] — научный журнал

great literature — великая литература

it is supposed [] — считается

difficult grammar — сложная грамматика

German [] — немецкий язык

Greek [] — греческий язык

exception [] — исключение

rule [] — правило

vocabulary [] — словарь

technical term [] — технический термин

version [] — разновидность

spelling — правописание

pronunciation [] — произношение

you should [] be ready to make efforts — вам сле­дует быть готовыми приложить усилия

to be patient [] — быть терпеливыми



The United States of America

(Соединённые Штаты Америки)

America is named after the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci. He made several voyages to the New World. But Christopher Columbus was the first person who reached America in October 1492.

There are 50 states in the USA (including Ha­waii) and the population is over 200 million. The national symbol of America is the bald eagle. The Capital of the USA is Washington. The American flag has thirteen red and white stripes for 13 ori­ginal states of the Union. There are also 50 white stars on the US flag as a symbol of the number of states. On the 4th of July 1776 The Declaration of Independence was signed — this date is the be­ginning of the history of the USA. Thirteen Bri­tish colonies in America became independent from Great Britain. The first president of the USA was George Washington.

The USA is washed by two oceans: the Atlan­tic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The territory of the USA lies in a few climatic zones. The climate is different in different regions. There are a lot of long rivers, deep lakes, wide valleys and deserts in this country.

Most of the people live in towns and cities. The main cities are Washington, New York, Chica­go, Detroit, Los Angeles, Dallas, San Francisco, Boston.

The USA is a country with highly developed industry and agriculture. It is rich in gas, oil, coal and other natural resources.


Words and phrases

the United States of America [] — Соединённые Штаты Америки

Christopher Columbus [] — Христофор Колумб

to reach [] — достигать

state — штат

population [] — население

bald eagle [] — белоголовый орлан

Washington [] — Вашингтон

stripe — полоса

the Declaration of Independence — Декларация независимости

to sign [] — подписывать

to wash [] — омывать

the Atlantic Ocean [] — Атлантический океан

the Pacific Ocean [] — Тихий океан

climatic zone [] — климатическая зона

highly developed [] — высокоразвитый

industry [] — промышленность

agriculture [] — сельское хозяйство

rich — богатый

gas — газ

oil — нефть

coal [] — уголь

natural resources [] — природные ресурсы

The USA Political System

(Политическая система США)
The USA is a presidential republic.

The legislative branch of the US is the Congress. The Congress represents all American states. The Congress consists of two parts: the House of Re­presentatives and the Senate. Each state has two se­nators. They are elected every 6 years. There are 100 senators in the Senate: 2 senators from every 50 states. A senator must be at least 30 years old. He (she) must be a citizen of the USA for at least 9 years.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected for two years. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a citizen of the USA for at least 7 years. He (she) must live in the state. Every state of the USA has at least one representative in the House of Representatives.

The executive branch consists of the President, the Vice-President and the President’s Cabinet.

The Congress makes laws. The executive branch puts the laws into effect.

The President of the USA must be at least 35 years old; he must be a natural citizen of the USA. He must have lived in the USA for at least 14 years. A President is elected every four years and can­not work more than two terms.

The judicial branch of the USA is the system of courts in the USA. Its job to enforce laws. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the coun­try.

The judicial branch works together with the legislative and executive branches to protect the Constitution and the rights of people.


Words and phrases

presidential republic — президентская республика

legislative branch [] — законодательная власть

the Congress [] — Конгресс

the House of Representatives — палата представителей

the Senate [] — Сенат

to elect [] — избирать

at least [] — по меньшей мере

citizen [] — гражданин

representative [] — представитель

executive branch [] — исполнитель­ная власть

to make — создавать, разрабатывать

law [] — закон

term [] — срок

judicial branch [] — судебная власть

to enforce [] — проводить в жизнь

the Supreme Court [] — Верховный суд

Washington is the Capital of the USA (Вашингтонстолица США)

The USA is a federal union which consists of fifty states and one independent district — the Dis­trict of Columbia (DC). This district is the territo­ry of the national capital of the USA — Washing­ton. The District of Columbia has its own laws and regulations.

The place for the capital was chosen by the first American President George Washington. In 1790 George Washington laid the corner-stone there. The place was called the District of Columbia in ho­nour of Columbus, the person who discovered America. The capital got its name — Washing­ton — after the name of its founder.

Washington is the heart of America. It is the place where the federal government works and where the President lives. The population of Wa­shington is about 11 million people.

There are a lot of places of interest in Washing­ton, for example: the Capitol — the birthplace of the city, the Washington monument which is 555 feet tall (160 m), the White House where the President of the USA lives.

The Americans are proud of their beautiful capital.


Words and phrases

independent district — независимый округ

the District of Columbia [] — округ Колумбия

capital [] — столица

Washington [] — Вашингтон

own law [] — собственный закон

regulation [] — инструкция, постановление

was chosen [] — было выбрано

first [] — первый

laid the corner-stone — заложил город

was called [] — было названо

in honour [] — в честь

to discover [] — открывать

founder [] — основатель

heart [] — сердце

federal government [] — федеральное правительство

population [] — население

place of interest — достопримечательность

the Capitol [] — Капитолий

birthplace [] — место основания

Washington monument [] — памятник Ва­шингтону

to be proud [] — гордиться

beautiful [] — красивый, прекрасный


The United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

(Соединённое Королевство

Великобритании и Северной Ирландии)
The British Isles lying to the north-west of Europe include two large islands — Great Britain and Ireland and some five thousand small is­lands.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland occupies the Island of Great Britain, the northern part of the Island of Ireland and a number of small islands.

When we talk about Britain, we usually use the words «The United Kingdom» or «The UK» (for short). The UK consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Now let’s talk about each part of the UK.



England

England is bigger than the other parts (or countries) of the UK. The agriculture and indu­stry are highly developed in England. Wool is the most important export of England. The main branches of industry in England are: coal-mining, shipbuilding and light industry. England is a coun­try of forests and plains. England is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Irish Sea in the east. England is separated from France by the En­glish Channel. The main rivers in England are the Thames and the Severn. The population of England is 46 million people. London is the capital of Eng­land.



Wales

The population of Wales is only about 2 mil­lion people. In Wales people speak English and Welsh. Welsh is very different from English.

The national emblem of Wales is leek.

There are many high mountains in Wales. Mount Snowdon is the highest. There are also long, sandy beaches and high cliffs. There you can see picturesque rivers, water falls and lakes.

The climate of Wales is mild and rainy.

The biggest town in Wales is Cardiff. Cardiff is the capital of Wales. It is also an important port.

Many Welshmen are miners.

The Welsh are fond of music and they usually sing very well. They are also fond of football, rugby.



Scotland

The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. The second large city after Edinburgh is Glasgow. Scotland is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.

The most picturesque part of Scotland is High­lands. It is the region of mountains and rivers, small towns and villages.

Scotland has a separate educational, legal sys­tem and local administration.

The population of Scotland is about 5 million people.

The national emblem of Scotland is thistle. Many Scottish names begin with «Mac». «Mac» is the old Scottish word for «son of», so «MacDonald» really means «Donald's son».

The Scottish are wearing kilts. These kilts have different colours. Kilts show the family’s colours. For example, MacDonald’s kilt is red and green.

Scottish music always uses bagpipes.

The sport of golf originated in Scotland.

Although Scotland has its own language — Gaelic, most Scottish people speak English.



Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is the north-west part of the Island of Ireland. Its capital is Belfast. The second part of the Island of Ireland is the Irish Republic which is separated from the Northern Ireland. Its capital is Dublin. The Irish Republic is not the part of the UK.

The climate of Northern Ireland is typically oceanic with mild winters and rainy summers.

Northern Ireland is an agricultural region with small farming units. Its population is about 1.5 million people.


Words and phrases

the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [] — Соединённое Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии

the British Isles [] — Британские острова

Europe [] — Европа

Ireland [] — Ирландия

to occupy [] — занимать

island [] — остров

for short — сокращённо

let’s talk [] — давайте поговорим

agriculture [] — сельское хозяйство

industry [] — промышленность

highly developed [] — высокоразвитый

wool [] — шерсть

most important — наиболее важный

main branch [] — основное направление

coal-mining [] — добыча угля

shipbuilding [] — судостроение

light industry [] — лёгкая промышленность

forest — лес

plain [] — равнина

is washed by — омывается

the Atlantic Ocean — Атлантический океан

the Irish Sea [] — Ирландское море

to separate — отделять

population [] — население

capital [] — столица

Wales [] — Уэльс

Welsh [] — валлийский, уэльский

leek [] — лук-порей

mount [] — гора

beach — пляж

cliff — утёс, отвесная скала

picturesque [] — живописный

river — река

waterfall — водопад

lake — озеро

climate [] — климат

mild [] — мягкий

rainy [] — дождливый

Welshmen — валлийцы

miner [] — шахтёр

to be fond of — увлекаться чем-либо

rugby [] — регби

Scotland [] — Шотландия

Edinburgh [] — Эдинбург

separate [] — отдельный

legal [] — законный

local [] — местный

Scottish — шотландский

son of— сын кого-либо (Donald’s son — сын Дональда)

kilt [kilt] — шотландская юбка, килт

bagpipes [] — волынка

Gaelic [] — гэльский язык

the Irish Republic [] — Ирландская

Республика Dublin [] — Дублин

The UK Political System

(Политическая система

Соединённого Королевства)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) is a monarchy. The Queen is the head of the state.

The Parliament consists of three elements — the Monarch, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The members of the House of Lords are called peers. There is no election for the House of Lords. The House of Lords is less important than the House of Commons.

There are 650 members of the House of Com­mons, they are chosen by election. They are elected for a maximum of five years. The members of the House of Commons belong to different political parties.

The main political parties are: the Conserva­tive Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Party. The party which has the largest number of mem­bers in the Parliament is called the Government.

The second largest party is called the Official Op­position.

The Government sits on the right of the Spea­ker’s chair; the Opposition sits on the left.

The Prime Minister is the head of the Go­vernment. The Prime Minister chooses from the Lords and the Commons 60 men to form the Ministry. 20 men from the Ministry form the Ca­binet. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are responsible for directing the national policy of the UK.

The UK flag is Union Jack formed by union of crosses of St. George, St. Andrew, St. Patric.


Words and phrases

political system [] — политическая си­стема

Great Britain [] — Великобритания

the United Kingdom [] — Соединён­ное Королевство

Northern Ireland [] — Северная Ирландия

monarchy [] — монархия

state [] — государство

the Queen [] — королева

the Parliament [] — парламент

to consist of — состоять из

monarch [] — монарх

the House of Lords — палата лордов

the House of Commons — палата общин

election [] — выборы

650 members = six hundred and fifty members — 650 членов

they are chosen by election — они выбираются голосованием

they are elected for a maximum of five years — выбираются не более чем на 5 лет

maximum [] — максимум

to belong — принадлежать, относиться

main [] — основной

the Conservative Party []— Партия консерваторов (Консервативная партия)

the Labour Party [] — Рабочая партия

the Liberal Party [] — Либеральная партия

to be called — называться

the Government [] — правительство

the Prime Minister [] — премьер-министр

the Official Opposition — официальная оппозиция

head — глава

to be responsible for — отвечать за

directing [] — ведение

national policy [] — национальная поли­тика

union of crosses — объединение крестов

St. George = Saint George [] — святой Геор­гий

St. Andrew = Saint Andrew [] — святой Анд­рей

St. Patric = Saint Patric [] — святой Патрик

London (Лондон)

London is the capital of Great Britain, its po­litical, economic and cultural center. London is an ancient city. It is more than twenty centuries old. The population of London, including suburbs, is more than nine million people. London is one of the biggest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. It is situated on the banks of the river Thames.

London includes several parts: the City, West­minster, the West End and the East End.

The City is the financial and business center. There are a lot of banks and offices there. It is an ancient part of London.

One of the greatest English churches — St. Paul’s Cathedral — is here. It was designed and built by an outstanding English architect Chris­topher Wren in 1710. St. Paul’s Cathedral is the second large church in Europe. Admiral Nelson is buried here.

Westminster is the administrative center of London. The Houses of Parliament are situated here. It is the seat of the British Government. The building is very beautiful with its two towers and a big clock called Big Ben. Westminster Abbey where kings and queens are crowned is opposite. It was built in the 11th century. It was destroyed and rebuilt several times. Many famous people are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Dickens and Kip­ling.

The West End is the part of London where the rich people live. Fine houses, wide streets, won­derful parks are situated here. There are the best cinemas, theatres, concert halls, famous shops, comfortable hotels, restaurants, museums in this part of the city. The most beautiful park of Lon­don — Hyde Park — is in this district too.

The East End includes the port, the docks and the great industrial areas.


Words and phrases

capital [] — столица

economic [] — экономический

ancient [] — древний

population [] — население

suburb [] — пригород

Europe [] — Европа

is situated [] — расположен

bank [] — 1) берег; 2) банк

the Thames [] — Темза

church [] — церковь

outstanding [] — выдающийся

architect [] — архитектор

to bury [] — хоронить

tower [] — башня

the Westminster Abbey — Вестминстерское аббатство

to crown [] — короновать

to destroy [] — уничтожать, разрушать

to rebuild [] — восстанавливать

theatre [] — театр

shop — магазин

restaurant [] — ресторан

museum [] — музей

district [] — район

area [] — зона

The Places of Interest in London

(Достопримечательности Лондона)

London is famous for its outstanding places of interest. There are many architectural, art and his­toric monuments in London. They are the Tower of London, the Houses of Parliament, the Bucking­ham Palace, the National Gallery and others.

The London underground is the oldest one in the world. It was opened in 1863.

The Tower of London

The Tower of London is a very old building. It is more than 900 years old. English kings and queens lived in it many years ago, but now it is a museum. It was also a fortress, a royal palace and later a prison. The black ravens inside of the To­wer is a famous sign. The legend says that without them the Tower will fall and the monarchy in Britain will fall too.



The Houses of Parliament. Big Ben

Big Ben is the name of a huge clock in one of the tall towers of the Houses of Parliament. The Houses of Parliament is the largest building in the richest Gothic style completed in 1857. It stands on the bank of the river Thames and is 940 ft in length.

The Clock Tower, overlooking Westminster Bridge, is 316 ft high. People can get inside the Tower and see how Big Ben works. There is no lift and there are three hundred and forty (340) steps up to Big Ben. The faces of the clock are very large. The minute hands are 14 ft long, the hour hands are 9 ft, and the figures are 2 ft long.

The Buckingham Palace

The Buckingham Palace is the home of the Queen in London. She lives and works there. She holds official meetings and ceremonies there. When the flag is flying on the top of the Palace — people know that the Queen is in London, at home.



The National Gallery

The National Gallery has a collection of Ital­ian, Dutch, German and French painters. The National Gallery is rich in paintings by Italian masters such as Raphael and Veronese. It has works by all European schools of art such as works by Rembrandt, Rubens and El Greco. The Gal­lery is open 7 days a week and admission is free.


Words and phrases

outstanding [] — выдающийся

architectural [] — архитектурный

the Buckingham [] Palace — Букингемский дворец

the National [] Gallery — Национальная галерия

underground [] — метро

tower [] — башня

the Tower of London — лондонский Тауэр

fortress [] — крепость

royal palace [] — королевский дворец

prison [] — тюрьма

raven [] — ворон

inside [] — внутри

sign [] — знак, символ

monarchy [] — монархия

huge [] — огромный

the Houses of Parliament — здания парламента

Gothic [] — готический

ft = feet — фут (30,48 см)

length [] — длина

step — ступенька

face of the clock — циферблат часов

minute hand — минутная стрелка

hour [] hand — часовая стрелка

figure [] — цифра

admission [] — вход, посещение



The Russian Federation

(Российская Федерация)

The Russian Federation is one of the largest countries in the world. Its territory lies in the eas­tern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia.

Russia is washed by three oceans and twelve seas. The oceans are: the Arctic Ocean, the At­lantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others.

Russia borders on many countries, such as Mongolia, China, Finland, Norway and others.

Russian landscape is different: from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. The main mountains are: the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. The longest rivers in Russia are: the Vol­ga, the Ob, and the Lena. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal.

The Russian Federation is rich in natural re­sources such as oil, gas, coal, iron, gold and others.

The population of Russia is about 150 million people. The capital of Russia is Moscow. The po­pulation of Moscow is about 10 million people.

The Russian Federation is a presidential republic. It is one of the leading powers in the world.


Words and phrases

the Russian Federation [] — Российская Федерация

to lie [] — лежать, находиться

eastern [] — восточный

Europe [] — Европа

northern [] — северный

Asia [] — Азия

is washed — омывается

ocean [] — океан

sea [] — море

the Arctic Ocean [] — Северный Ледовитый океан

the Atlantic Ocean [] — Атлантический океан

the Pacific Ocean [] — Тихий океан

the White Sea [] — Белое море

the Barents Sea [] — Баренцево море

the Black Sea [] — Чёрное море

the Baltic Sea [] — Балтийское море

and others — и другие

to border [] on — граничить с
Mongolia [] — Монголия
China [] — Китай
Finland [] — Финляндия
Norway [] — Норвегия
desert [] — пустыня
forest [] — лес
mountain [] — гора
valley [] — долина
main [] — главный
the Urals [] — Уральские горы
the Caucasus [] — Кавказские горы
the Altai [] — Алтайские горы
natural resources [] — природные богатства
oil [] — нефть
gas [] — газ
coal [] — уголь
gold [] — золото
capital [] — столица
population — население

presidential republic — президентская республика

one of the leading powers — одна из ведущих держав

The Russian Federation Political System

(Политическая система Российской Федерации)

Under the Constitution our country is a presi­dential republic. The head of the state is the Pre­sident. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is checked by the President.

The legislative branch is the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers: the Upper Cham­ber is the Council of Federation; the Lower Chamber is the State Duma. Each chamber is headed by the Speaker. Every law must be approved by both Chambers and signed by the President. The President may veto the bill.

The executive branch belongs to the Govern­ment which is headed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister forms the Cabinet.

The judicial branch is represented by the Con­stitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the regional courts.

The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, he makes treaties, enforces laws, and appoints ministers.

The flag of the Russian Federation is a three coloured banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. The national emblem is a double-headed eagle. It is the most ancient sym­bol of Russia. All these symbols are official.
Words and phrases

presidential republic [] — президент­ская республика

head of the state — глава государства

federal government [] — федеральное правительство

to consist of — состоять из

legislative [] branch — законодательная власть

executive [] branch — исполнительная власть

judicial [] branch — судебная власть

is checked by the President — контролируется Президентом

the Federal Assembly — Федеральное Собрание

the State Duma — Государственная Дума

is headed by the Speaker — возглавляется спикером

law [] — закон

to approve [] — одобрять, утверждать

to sign [] — подписывать

may veto the bill — может наложить вето на законо­проект

Prime Minister [] — премьер-министр

the Constitutional Court — Конституционный суд

the Supreme Court [] — Верховный суд

regional court — региональный суд

Commander-in-Chief — главнокомандующий

armed forces [] — вооружённые силы to make treaties — заключать договоры to enforce laws — проводить законы в жизнь

to appoint ministers — назначать министров

stripe [] — полоса

double-headed eagle [] — двуглавый орёл

most ancient symbol — древнейший символ


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