Методические указания к учебному пособию по английскому языку - страница №5/5
Глава государства — президент. The President is Head of State
Россия, расположенная в Восточной Европе и Северной и Центральной Азии, является самой большой страной в мире.
Russia is located in Eastern Europe and Northern and Central Asia and is the largest country in the world.
In Russia there are many vast areas of fertile lands, large forests, deep lakes and rives.
The Russian Federation consists of a number of regions, territories and autonomous republics.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ( p203)
To the west of the continent of Europe lie two large islands. The larger of them is called Great Britain, and the smaller, Ireland. These two and 5,500 smaller islands form the British Isles. The island of Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The isle of Ireland is divided into Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The UK (the United Kingdom) is the official name of the country, occasionally referred to as Great Britain, which is, strictly speaking, only a geographic name.
Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea from the west, by the North Sea from the north and west. It is separated from the European continent by the English Channel. The narrowest part of the English Channel is called the Strait of Dover. The UK is not a very large country. Its territory is about 244,000 square kilometers, and no point of the country is more than 120 kilometers away from the sea.
At the same time, the population of the UK is the third largest in Europe, comprising about 60 million people. It is incorrect to call everybody who lives in the United Kingdom "English", as this is the name only for those who live in England. The residents of Wales are named Welsh, while the people of Scotland are called Scottish. The correct common name for English, Scottish and Welsh is British. Those who live in Northern Ireland are called Irish.
The climate of the British Isles is generally mild; it is seldom cold in winter and never too hot in summer. This is due to the warm current of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf Stream. Britain was always known as the country of fogs, but now it is not quite so because of the climatic changes: there is maybe less fog than in any other European country.
There are no high mountains and long rivers in the UK. The highest mountain is Ben Nevis in the Highlands of Scotland, and the longest rivers are the Severn and the Thames.
Geographically, the UK has a very convenient position, being located on the crossroads from Europe to America. This is one of the reasons why Britain was (and is up to the present time) one of the leading world powers. The capital of the country is London. It is situated on the river Thames.
Britain has an ancient and glorious history. It used to be the great empire "where the sun never sets". It gave the world many famous scientists, writers, political leaders and explorers, such as Newton, Darwin, Drake, Shakespeare, Churchill and others.
For centuries monarchs ruled Britain. The constitutional monarchy is still preserved in the country, though it is practically no more than a tradition and a tribute to the past. Queen Elisabeth II is Head of State. Her power is limited by the parliament, which is elected every four years. The leader of the party that has won the majority during the elections becomes the Prime Minister. In fact, he becomes the head of state and forms the Cabinet. The second largest party forms the official Opposition.
Иногда называемая - occasionally referred to
Строго говоря- strictly speaking
Омывается- is washed by
Отделена- is separated from
Третье по величине- the third largest
Называются- are named
Никогда не бывает слишком жарко- and it is never too hot
Меньше туманов, чем- less fog than
Удобное местоположение- a very convenient position
Древняя и славная- ancient and glorious
Раньше была- It used to be
Вторая по величине- The second largest
The larger island is called Great Britain, the smaller – Ireland. They form the British Isles with 5.500 smaller islands.
The island of Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales.
It is divided into two parts.
The United Kingdom (UK).
The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea and the North Sea.
Its territory is about two hundred and forty-four thousand square kilometers (244 тыс. км.)
The are called British , Welsh, Scottish or Irish.
This is due to the Gulf Stream.
The Severn and the Thames.
The capital of country is London.
It is located on the crossroads from Europe to America.
Newton, Darwin, Shakespeare, Dickens.
It is the constitutional monarchy.
К чему относятся эти цифры в тексте
5500- smaller islands
244000 square kilometers –territory
120 kilometers to the sea
60 000 000 people- population
The United States of America
The United States of America covers the central part of North America. Besides, Alaska and Hawaii belong to the USA. Its territory is about 9,328,000 square kilometers. The population of the United States is about 265 million people. The climate is different from state to state due to the large size of the country. It is mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, and arctic in Alaska.
The USA is washed by the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in the east. It borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. The most important rivers in the USA are the Mississippi, the Colorado, the Ohio, and the Hudson River. The main mountain chains are the Cordillera in the west and the Appalachian Mountains in the east. Between these two mountain chains lie the central lowlands, called the prairie. To the north of the country, on the border with Canada, the Great Lakes are situated. They include the Lake Superior, the Lake Ontario, the Lake Eire, the Lake Huron and the Lake Michigan. Natural resources include nickel, lead, silver, petroleum, natural gas, iron and others.
Present-day American history began in 1607, when colonizers established the first permanent English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia. Further on during the 17th century the settlers from Europe came to the new lands. They struggled Native Americans and drove them away from rich land to reservations. At first thirteen British colonies were established on the eastern coast. In 1775 the colonies began their struggle for independence and succeeded in 1783. This was how the United States came into being.
In 1861 the Civil War broke out. It is usually referred to as the war between the South and the North. Its aim was to give freedom to black slaves who previously could be bought or sold. Slavery was abolished in 1865, but the discrimination of the black population remained until the 1960s. The influence of the USA was growing during the 19th—20th centuries until by the beginning of the 21st century it became the leading power. It dominates the economy and political life of the world.
The United States is a democratic federal republic. It comprises fifty states, including Alaska and Hawaii, and the District of Columbia, where the capital of the country is situated. The largest state is Alaska, and the smallest is Rhode Island. Each state has its own legislature. Head of State is the President. Washington, DC (District of Columbia) is the capital of the country, the seat of the government. The President is elected every four years.
The United States of America covers the central part of North America. Besides, Alaska and Hawaii belong to the USA.
It covers 9.328.000 square kilometers.
The population of the USA is 265 million people.
The climate of the USA is so diverse due to the large size of the country.
It borders on Canada and Mexico.
It is washed by the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
The important rivers are the Mississippi, the Colorado, the Huron.
The Great Lakes are situated on the border with Canada.
Yes, it is.
It began in 1607.
Its aim was to give freedom to black slaves.
It dominates the political and economical life in the world.
There are 50 states.
Barak Obama is the President of the USA.
Canada, Australia, New Zealand
Canada is located in North America. It is the second largest country in the world, but the population of the country is only about 30 million people. Most of the population is concentrated along the southern border, in the cities such as Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto.
Canada is an independent country, though formally Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, is recognized as Head of State. The country consists of two territories and ten provinces. There are two official languages in Canada — English, which is the language of about 60% of the population, and French. The majority of French-speaking population is concentrated in the province of Quebec.
The country is mainly agricultural. It is well known as an exporter of wheat and oats. It is also rich in natural resources. It is one of the main producers of electric power.
The continent of Australia is situated between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world. The country's official name is Commonwealth of Australia. It is unique, because it is at the same time a continent, the smallest one in the world.
Australia is a very young country. The explorers from Europe unanimously called it a wonderful continent. There are really a lot of wonders: strange animals and wildlife, unusually mild weather, warm winters, etc. Even the sun rises there in the west, which is strange for Europeans. Besides, there is great stock of mineral resources: gold, oil, coal and much more.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a federation of six states: South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, and Western Australia. The central part of the country is scarcely populated. The majority of the inhabitants live along the seashore or on the islands surrounding the continent: Tasmania is probably the most famous of them.
There are not very many cities in Australia. Agriculture is very well developed there. It is the world's leading manufacturer of wool. The largest and the most famous city is Sydney. It was the capital of the Olympic Games in 2000. The capital of the country is Canberra, which is a remarkable city, with lakes, parks and skyscrapers.
New Zealand is a country in the Pacific Ocean, situated to the southeast from Australia. The country consists of two main islands and a number of smaller ones. All of them belong to the large group of Polynesian Islands. As one of the former colonies of Great Britain, now New Zealand is a member of the Commonwealth. It is formally the constitutional monarchy, Queen Elizabeth II being Head of State. The Queen appoints the governor who rules in her name. But, as well as in the UK, the Queen and her representatives have little or no power. In fact, the Prime Minister is the ruler.
New Zealand is a rich country, most of its wealth being due to agricultural activities. The rate of life in New Zealand is really high. Auckland is the largest city in the country. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. English is the official language in the country, though in some schools Maori, which is the language of the native population, is taught as well.
Canada is located in North America
It is the second largest country in the world.
The capital of Canada is Ottawa. Main cities are Toronto, Montreal.
Most of the population is concentrated along the southern border.
The country is mainly agricultural. It is one of the main producers of electric power.
There is great stock of mineral resources: gold, oil, coal and much more.
Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, is recognized as Head of State.
English and France
Think of the beginning of the following sentences:
Moscow was founded in 1147 by Prince Yury Dolgoruky. It stands on the Moskva River. Since the time of its foundation the history of Moscow is inseparable from the history of the country. At first it was a little town on the boundary of the Kiev Russia. Some time passed and it developed into a prosperous city. It became the capital of Russia during the rule of Ivan the Third. Peter the Great moved the capital to St Petersburg, but Moscow still played an important role in the life of Russia. In 1918 the Soviet government moved from Petrograd to Moscow, and thus the ancient city became the capital of the country for the second time.
At present Moscow is the largest city in the Russian Federation, the seat of the government, the political, educational and cultural centre of the country. The population of Moscow is over nine million people, and the city is growing from day to day. Moscow being an ancient city, one can come across the sights on every step.
The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin and Red Square. It is not only a historic centre, but also a unique architectural ensemble, famous all over the world. The Kremlin includes over twenty towers joined by the wall. Each tower has its own name; the most famous one is the Spasskaya Tower with its chimes. On the territory of the Kremlin there are beautiful ancient cathedrals, Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon and the Armoury Museum — the exhibition of the treasures of the Russian tsars, including icons, crowns, coaches, presents from monarchs of other countries and ceremonial dresses. The Spasskaya Tower outlooks Red Square and the Pokrovsky Cathedral, which is famous all over the world for its exotic beauty.
Not far from the Kremlin Arbat begins. It is the best-known street of the city. There is no traffic, so one can walk and enjoy watching the crowds of people strolling by. Arbat is the main tourist attraction after the Kremlin.
But Moscow is not only the Kremlin and Arbat. The best way to describe Moscow is probably to say that it is like any other metropolis in the world — lines of cars (and traffic jams!), hurrying people, tall build-lngs, elegant restaurants, night clubs and much more. Its appearance is not always attractive, but, beyond any doubt, fascinating and capturing
Answer the following questions:
Moscow was founded in 1147 ( eleven forty- seven).
It stands on the Moskva River.
Moscow became the capital of Russia for the first time during the rule of Ivan the Third.
Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg.
It moved from Petrograd to Moscow.
The population of Moscow is over ten million people. (Население Москвы свыше 10 миллионов человек).
The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin and Red Square.
There are over twenty towers .
Visitors can see on the territory of the Kremlin Beautiful ancient cathedrals, Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon and the Armoury Museum.
There is no traffic, so you can walk and enjoy watching the crowds of people.
Fill in the following blanks with the words from the text:
London, the capital of the UK, was founded in AD 43 by the Roman invaders as a settlement and a fortress. At first it had the name of Londinium. Due to its convenient position in the mouth of the river Thames the settlement grew and developed into a city. In the 11th century London became the capital of England. For centuries it was a prominent port through which wealth and prosperity came to the country.
Being an important trade and political centre, the city enjoyed greater independence than the other cities of the medieval England and even had the right to elect the head of the city, Lord Mayor. The picturesque ceremony of the elections of Lord Mayor of London is still held every year and attracts thousands of tourists.
The city was built rather chaotically, the streets being narrow and dirty. It grew and developed together with the developing of the nation. In 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed the most part of the city, which was rebuilt, but the old planning remained untouched.
Historically and geographically London can be divided into three parts: the City, the West End and the East End. The City is the financial centre of the country, with offices of large firms and banks and the Stock Exchange.
The West End has always been considered a place where aristocrats lived. There is a great number of sights and attractions: the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, St Paul's Cathedral, the Nelson Column, to mention just a few of them. London's beautiful parks are also there: Hyde Park, St. James' Park, Regent's Park are favourite places for Londoners to visit and relax. One may also go shopping in the West End — Piccadilly Street and Oxford Street both present a wide choice of expensive shops and boutiques.
The East End was previously considered the place where not well-to-do people lived. The identity of the East End as a place of deprivation and poverty persisted until well after the Second World War, becoming overlaid with certain gangster glamour in the 1960s. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, London east of the City is still seen as having a different character, claiming a certain independence of look from the rest of metropolis; but its cultural status has been transformed. Parts of the East End are believed to house the highest population of artists in Europe, and the East End is now considered a bohemian district. The ugly docks, which for years disguised the face of the East End, are now closed, and new hotels, stadiums and apartment houses are being built.
Now London extends much more than the City, the West End and the East End. Its suburbs grow rapidly. London and its suburbs are called Greater London.
As well as it is impossible to say that Moscow is a typical Russian city, nobody can call London a typical British one. In fact, it has become a multinational metropolis, being inhabited by people from all over the world. It is always busy and crowded. It certainly has its own face — millions of faces. Maybe, this is the reason why people say: "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life.”
Answer the questions about London.
London was founded in 43 AO
At first it had the name of Londinium.
Due to its convenient position.
In the eleventh century it became the capital of England.
It was an important trade and political centre.
In 1666 (sixteen sixty-six) the Great Fire of London destroyed the most part of the city, which was rebuilt, but the old planning remained untouched.
London is divided into three parts: the City, the West End and the East End.
The City is the financial centre of the country.
There is a great number of sights and attractions: the Houses of Parliament, Westminster, Abbey, St Paul’s Cathedral, the Nelson Column.
Hyde Park, St. James' Park and Regent's Park are situated in the West End.
Piccadilly Street and Oxford Street in the West End are the most famous places in London to do the shopping.
It is now considered as a bohemian district.
London and its suburbs is Greater London.
It is inhabited of people all over the world.
Washington, DC is the capital of the United States of America. It is situated in the mouth of the Potomac River, in the District of Columbia (DC), not belonging to any state. The city is unique in its own way— it was specially designed as the capital of the USA. The architect, who drew up the plan of the city, Pierre L'Enfant, wanted it to be very convenient. The place for the capital was chosen by the first president, George Washington, and in 1800 the Government moved there.
There are a lot of Governmental offices, but probably the best known, as well as the most important for the country's life are the White House and the Capitol. The White House is the official residence of the President of the United States. It was built in 1799. It is a three- storeyed house where the President and his family live. At the same time it is the place where official receptions are held and the administration gathers for the meetings. The Capitol is the seat of the Congress. The corner stone of the Congress was laid by George Washington in 1790. The Congress has two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The city of Washington, DC is rather large and very beautiful, being at the same time different from all the other cities in the USA, because there are no skyscrapers. According to the law, no house in Washington, DC must be higher than the Capitol.
Washington, DC has the population of about 900,000 people. Being the administrative centre of the country, it doesn't have any industry. They say, nothing is produced in Washington, DC except wastepaper. Thousands of documents are drafted, approved or denied in the city every day. People living there either belong to the administration, or are employed in the service industry. Besides, thousands of tourists come to see the capital of the country. There is a lot to be seen: Thomas Jefferson Memorial, the Library of Congress, the Washington Monument and much more. The Washington Monument is the most remarkable of these: it is a column rising 160 metres, and from the top of it the visitors can enjoy the view over the city. Among the attractions of the capital it is necessary to mention the museums: the National Gallery of Art, the National Museum of History and Technology, and others.
10. What are the main attractions of the city? Какие главные достопримечательности есть в Вашингтоне? The main attractions of the city are Thomas Jefferson Memorial, the Library of Congress, the Washington Monument ..
New York, or the Big Apple, as the Americans often call it, is the largest city in the USA and in the whole world. It stands in the mouth of the Hudson River. The people of New York City (NYC) live within five boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island. Manhattan Island, the oldest part of the city, was bought from the Native Americans for the amount of goods worth $ 26.
Now it is one of the busiest financial and cultural centre in the world, offering the visitors a unique collection of experiences and attractions. There is a wide choice of internationally acclaimed theatres, restaurants and museums, historic parks and churches.
Manhattan is also a district of business and finance. In Wall Street there are offices of large companies and banks, as well as New York Stock Exchange, which dominates the business life of the whole world. New York is an international city. On the map of Manhattan one can find Little Italy with the Italian restaurants and its own way of life, Brighton Beach, where the immigrants from the former Soviet Union live and Chinatown, inhabited by the Chinese. NY is also famous for its fine department stores and boutiques. In the evening you can enjoy one of its many nightclubs, the ballet, opera, a show or concert. Broadway is the centre of nightlife. It is the longest street in New York with many sights.
The best way to go around NY is on foot. One word applies to driving your own car in Manhattan: don't! Streets are jammed and the parking is scarce and astronomically expensive. However, NYC is a paradise for walkers, who enjoy the finest window shopping and people-watching. When proper caution is exercised, most areas are safe. It is best to use well-lighted, busy streets at night. You can also travel anywhere you want by subway and buses. Subway, though rather in attractive and not so well organized as in Moscow, runs 24 hours a day. The fare is $ 1.50 for a single journey, payable with tokens. Free bus and subway system maps are available from hotels, tourist information centres and subway stations.
However one gets around New York, it is important to know some basic geography: Fifth Avenue divides the city between East and West. Street numbers begin at Fifth Avenue, so Two W. (west) 57th Street is just a few steps to the west of the Fifth Avenue, while Two E. (east) 57th Street is just to the east. Most streets in Manhattan are one-way. With a few exceptions, traffic on even-numbered streets travels east, and traffic on odd-numbered streets travels west. To New Yorkers, "downtown" does not connote the city centre. Rather, "downtown" simply means "south" and "uptown" means "north".
Thousands of tourists come to New York every day to see the Statue of Liberty, which is situated on Liberty Island and is a symbol of American democracy. It has a torch of Freedom in her right hand.
New York is famous for its skyscrapers, among which are the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building.
The unprecedented terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 disguised the face of New York. Two twin towers, which used to form the World Trade Centre, were destroyed as the result of the planes crash. This was the tragic day for the people of the USA and for the whole world. Two towers were in ruins in the matter of minutes. The life of the big city was paralyzed completely for more than a month. Now the WTC is under reconstruction.
Fill in the blanks with the verbs in the proper tense.